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An impeller is a rotor located within a tube or conduit

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There are several types of Agitation Equipment, including washing machine agitators (which rotate back and forth) and magnetic agitators (which contain a magnetic bar rotating in a magnetic field). Agitators can come in many sizes and varieties, depending on the application. In general, agitators usually consist of an impeller and a shaft. An impeller is a rotor located within a tube or conduit attached to the shaft. It helps enhance the pressure in order for the flow of a fluid be done. Modern industrial agitators incorporate process control to maintain better control over the mixing process.

Conventional, mechanically agitated, stirred tank reactors may be used for either batch or continuous processes, though the design and operating constraints are different in the two cases. Low viscosity fluids can usually be mixed effectively in baffled tanks with relatively small high speed impellers generating turbulent flows, while high viscosity (typically above about 10 Pa s) and non-Newtonian materials require larger, slow moving agitators that work in the laminar or transitional flow regimes. It is convenient to classify impellers as radial or axial pumping depending on the flow they generate in baffled tanks.

Principles of fluid motion and turbulence which have been found to be of use in mixing and agitation problems are discussed, as well as suggested applications in extractive-metallurgy processes. Various types of impellers are described, together with other conditions that affect flow pattern and turbulence. The choice of equipment for particular requirements is considered, and equations for power input are given. Modern heavy-duty mixing and agitation equipment can take an increasingly important part in such extractive-metallurgy processes as solids handling, crystallizing and leaching, chemical operations, and flotation. Application of mixing and fluid-mechanics principles to extraction methods can lead to greater process rates and a resultant saving in time and money.

In recent years improved, more streamlined, axial flow impellers, usually with three or four blades, have been developed. These generate good axial flow with very little turbulence and are widely used when effective bulk motion of the liquid is required. The tip vortices are weaker than those of a pitched blade impeller and the energy is dissipated very uniformly throughout the vessel volume, Figure 4c. Narrow blade hydrofoils have been used for heat transfer, solid suspension and dissolution while wider blade versions are more successful in gas-liquid systems.

Secondary wastewater treatment can be accomplished using any of the following; activated sludge process, ponds and aerated lagoons. Package wastewater treatment solutions such as anaerobic biological reactors, trickling filters, rotating biological contractors, membrane bioreactors, or sequencing batch reactors are becoming common. As with the primary treatment, solids removed in this step are taken to sludge Thickening Equipment, sludge dewatering, and final disposal. The water stream leaving the secondary wastewater treatment may either be recycled back to primary treatment or passed along to tertiary treatment.

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